We will see how to load shared (or dynamic) libraries in C/C++. This approach becomes particularly useful when our project becomes too big to easily manage with one script.
In C/C++, a library is a file containing several indexed objects (functions, variables, etc), that can be used as a single entity in linking parts of a program. Unix systems have two kinds of libraries - static libraries and shared (or dynamic) libraries. Static libraries are linked into the program during the linking phase of compilation. Shared libraries are linked in two stages:
- Compile time: linker verifies all the objects required by the program but does not insert them into the executable.
- Run time: Dynamic loader of the system checks which shared libraries were linked with the program and loads them into memory.
Static libraries have the advantage of speed. It can be loaded very fast. However, if the static libraries are huge, they can have issues with the memory. However, shared libraries can be slightly slower, but it has the advantage that it uses far less memory to run our programs.
We will write a library to convert km to degrees and vice-versa. Then we create a utility program to convert km to degrees and vice-versa using this library.
Create a library with functions
Let us create a shared library with functions to convert km to degrees and degrees to km. We save this library as
Create utility to load the library and perform conversions
Now, we will write a utility program to load the functions from the library based on the user call. The program can be called as below:
- To convert 12 degrees to km
./convert_km_degree.elf -d 12
- To convert 1000 km to degrees
./convert_km_degree.elf -k 1000
Here, we user input the degress using the option “d” and the program will return epicentral distance in kms. While if the user gives option of “k”, then the program will convert values to degrees.
Compile the utility script with shared library
We can write a makefile to compile the above utility program:
cc=gcc CFLAGS=-Wall -g BINS=support.dylib convert_km_degree.elf #for Linux use .so not .dylib all: $(BINS) %.dylib: %.c $(CC) $(FLAGS) -fPIC -shared -o $@ $^ %.elf: %.c $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -o $@ $^ clean: rm $(BINS) rm -r *.dSYM
In my case, I have used Mac (unix) to compile the codes and hence I used
.dylib to specify the library. If you are using Linux then use
>> ./convert_km_degree.elf -k 44 44.0000 km --> 0.3960 degrees >> ./convert_km_degree.elf -d 4.5 4.5000 degrees --> 499.9500 km >> ./convert_km_degree.elf -k 1000 -d 12 -k 3455 1000.0000 km --> 9.0009 degrees 12.0000 degrees --> 1333.2000 km 3455.0000 km --> 31.0981 degrees
This post mainly aims to give a quick instructions on how to load a shared library in C/C++. It also gives instructions on how to provide user arguments to the program using different options.
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